Biomes In Nigeria (Biology | Agriculture)
What is Biomes?
Biomes are broad biotic communities that correlate to vegetation zones or belts. Any significant natural terrestrial ecosystem is referred to as a biome. Any biome’s type is heavily influenced by climatic variables, particularly rainfall and temperature. Consequently, areas of the planet with comparable climates have comparable biomes.
Local Biotic Communities in Nigeria
Nigeria’s regional biotic communities can be divided into two main zones. Which are:
- Forest Zone
- Savanna Zone
1. Forest Zone
The forest zone is mostly made up of trees in its vegetation and contains the following biotic local communities:
- Mangrove swamp forest (salt and fresh water swamp).
- Tropical rain forest
Mangrove Swamp Forest
Location: Areas along the coast, particularly in states like Delta, Cross River, Rivers, Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Ogun, and Lagos, are home to mangrove swamp forests.
Features Of A Swamp Forest
- Tall, woody trees are present.
- Aerial roots are more common in plants.
- It has trees with large, evergreen leaves.
- The biotic community has tilapia fish, oysters, crabs, birds, snakes, and kingfishers, among other animals.
- Prominent plant species in these areas include the red and white mangroves, raffia palm, coconut, etc.
Location: States like Delta, Ondo, Edo, Imo, Abia, Lagos, Ogun, Anambra, Rivers, Bayelsa, and Akwa-Ibom are home to this biotic group.
Features Of Tropical Rainforest
- Large trees with buttress roots, evergreens, and large leaves make up the vegetation.
- There are different levels or heights of trees, including the bottom or lower, medium, and upper layers.
- It has several parasitic plants, epiphytes, climbers, and creepers.
- Due to the canopy created by the big trees, there is little undergrowth.
- Iroko, Obeche, Mahogany, African walnut, Opepe, ebony, etc. are examples of plant species found here.
- Among the animals that are typically seen are monkeys, birds, snakes, chameleons, squirrels, etc.
The savanna zone, which is primarily composed of grasses, is further separated into biotic groups known as savanna belts, including the following:
- Southern Guinea Savanna
- North Guinea Savanna
- Sahel savanna
Southern Guinea Savanna
Location: States like Enugu, Kogi, Benue, Kwara, Oyo, Ebonyi, Osun, and Ekiti include this biotic community.
Features Of Southern Guinea Savanna
- Of all the biotic communities in Nigeria, it is the largest.
- There is moderate rainfall, ranging from 100 to 150 cm.
- Grass is present.
- There are tall trees there with wide leaves.
- The biome is home to numerous significant animals including antelopes, lions, leopards, zebras, etc.
Northern Guinea Savanna
Location: States like Plateau, Kaduna, Bauchi, Niger, Taraba, Adamawa, and Kano are home to this biome.
Features of Northern Guinea Savanna
- Grasses with scattered trees and shrubs dominate the vegetation.
- The annual rainfall falls between 50 to 100 cm.
- There are random short deciduous trees there.
- The grasses are short yet plentiful.
- While some trees have strong bark, many have thorns.
- Typical animals include lizards, lions, leopards, antelopes, snakes, and more.
Location: Only the most northernmost regions of Nigeria, including Bornu, Katsina, Sokoto, Yobe, Kebbi, Zamfara, Kano, and Jigawa, are home to the local biotic community.
Features of the Sahel Savanna
- The biome gets relatively little rainfall and high temperatures (below 50cm per annum).
- The grasses are sparse and short.
- It also features short, sturdy trees or shrubs.
- There are fewer, less prosperous, and patchier grasses.
- The date palm, gum arabic, and acacia are important plant species in this region.
Location: The northern boundaries of the states like Sokoto, Katsina, Jigawa, Yobe, and Bornu are where this biome is found.
Features of the Desert
- This region sees little or no rainfall
- The humidity is really low and the temperature is high.
- It contains fewer trees, shrubs, bushes and grasses.
- The plants are unique in that they lack leaves, have swollen and succulent stems, extended roots, etc., which allow them to survive in the desert.
- The baobab and cactus trees are typical examples of trees in these areas.