Meaning, Types & Importance Of Transportation In Commerce And Marketing

Means of Transportation


What is Transportation?

Transportation can be defined as the Movement of products and persons from one place to another. Without transportation, the entire world would be static, making it practically difficult for people and commodities to move about.

Because there are many different modes of transportation available, all movement is achievable. As a result, transportation unites all of humanity and creates a single global economy.

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Importance Of Good Transport System to Commerce


1. A good transportation system makes it possible to deliver supplies and people when and where it is needed. If there were no transportation infrastructure, consider how raw commodities like coal, wood, crude oil, etc. could be transported from the location of extraction to the point of consumption.

2. A good transportation system makes it possible to carry commodities and services from areas where they are abundant to those where they are scarce. This is made feasible by reliable transportation.

3. A good transportation system lowers production costs.

4. More industries are located in areas with good transportation, which leads to development.

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Means Of Transportation

Four categories make up the numerous forms of transportation:

  1. Transportation by land
  2. Transportation by water
  3. Transportation by air
  4. Transportation by pipeline


1. Transportation by land

This can be split into 2 types

  • Road transportation
  • Rail transportation
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Road transportation

• Road Vehicles: This category includes transportation using any form of vehicle, including automobiles, buses, trailers, tippers, and more. This is the most used and ost popular method to transport people and goods.

• Car And Buses: Cars move more quickly than buses and are more expensive.

• Trailers and Lorries: Trailers are large, heavy-duty vehicles made of iron and metal, used for hauling bulky items like cement, coal, steel, machine and vehicle parts, as well as livestock like cows and goats.

• Bicycles: In the past, Nigeria relied heavily on bicycles as a mode of transportation. Only a relatively small percentage of people, like ice cream vendors, utilize bicycles in cities as civilization advances.

• Motorcycles: Both towns and villages are increasingly using motorcycles as a form of mobility.

• Foot Transport: Prior to the development of civilization, there were no bicycles or other motorized vehicles; instead, people had to go around on foot.


Advantages Of Road Transportation

The advantages of road transportation are as follows:

  1. By transporting both passengers and products using the same type of vehicle, production and maintenance costs can be reduced.
  2. People can travel whenever it is most convenient because, unlike other modes of transportation, there is no set schedule for departure or arrival.
  3. Bulky and perishable goods, such as fish, vegetables, and other such items, are best delivered by road, especially in specifically equipped vehicles like those employed by owners of cold storage facilities.
  4. Road transportation is quicker for short distances since there is no time lost in checking and passing (unlike sea and air transportation).
  5. Passengers for other modes of transportation, such as air and sea travel, are brought in and transported to their destinations via road transportation.
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Disadvantages Of Road Transportation

The drawbacks of using the road are as follows:

  1. Drivers of cars occasionally make hasty trips to and from their destinations with few passengers which usually reduce income.
  2. Long-distance trips frequently involve sluggish moving vehicles.
  3. Seasons, such as the rainy season, can frequently cause disruptions in the use of roads, and most of the roads, particularly those in rural regions, are substandard because of erosion.
  4. The lack of drivers, conductors, and vehicle upkeep may increase operating costs, resulting in a minimal profit or none at all.


Rail Transportation

Although due to inadequate system management and maintenance, its significance in Nigeria is falling. Colonial masters invented rail transportation.


Advantages Of Rail Transportation

  1. Bulky products can be transported across vast distances by rail.
  2. It is also the most affordable mode of transportation.
  3. Unlike other modes of transportation, rail travel is unaffected by the climate or the time of year.
  4. There aren’t many accidents in railroad transportation.
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Disadvantages Of Rail Transportation

  1. Train travel is not a quick mode of transportation.
  2. Due to the erratic nature of the rail network, trips are rarely completed on schedule.
  3. Because they have certain routes and are unable to operate outside of them, the stations and routes covered are restricted.
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2. Transportation by water

Water transportation refers to the movement of cargo and people over land or water. The following ships are used for water transportation within the nation:

1. Canoe: One of the watercraft used for domestic water transportation is the canoe. Local people construct canoes out of wood. Canoes are moved forward by the paddler paddling.

2. Engine boat: An engine boat is a vessel used to transport both products and engine employees. It travels forward thanks to an engine.

3. Speed Boat: This is a small, motorized boat that can only accommodate a few people. It is a cutting-edge innovation and a significant advancement. Security personnel and law enforcement frequently utilize it to thwart criminal activity and protect waterways.

4. Ships: Ships are another mode of waterborne transportation that may move both people and commodities. They are often large. It is capable of transporting enough cargo to fill three sizable warehouses. In the open sea, a ship’s journey may last for more than a month.


Advantages Of Water Transportation

  1. It is appropriate for the transportation of large items, particularly in international trade.
  2. It offers importers and merchants a reliable mode of shipping.
  3. Bulky products can be transported for less money by sea.


Disadvantages Of Water Transportation

  1. It is a slow kind of transportation.
  2. Perishable food cannot be transported with it.
  3. A significant amount of time might be lost at the port of departure as a result of protocol-related shipping document checks.
  4. The price of items could go up due to forwarding and clearing costs.


3. Transportation by air

Prior to now, air travel was not as common. It was only open to senior government officials, members of the affluent class like the kings and prime ministers, and a limited few others. There are several types of air transportation, including airplanes, jets, and helicopters.


Advantages Of Air Transportation

  1. It is the quickest mode of transportation
  2. Air transport is the greatest option for moving perishable and fragile commodities.
  3. Accidents are less frequent than in road transit, although this benefit has recently diminished due to repeated aircraft crashes.
  4. Because travel durations are often brief and handling is solely done by airport staff, theft is at its lowest level.


Disadvantages Of Air Transportation

  1. Because it is an expensive mode of transportation, the price of commodities goes up.
  2. It is not appropriate for transporting large items like machines.
  3. Compared to other modes of transportation, weather has the biggest impact on air travel.
  4. Since most airports are located distant from the towns, driving from the airport to major cities frequently results in a waste of time.
  5. The maintenance cost of an aircraft is too excessive, necessitating a large depreciation reserve.


4. Transportation by pipeline

Advancement in the transportation sector is a pipeline or underground transportation. This mode of transportation was created to move liquids and gas, such as kerosene, and water.

The liquid that is being conveyed runs through pipes that are buried in the earth to their final location.

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Advantages Of Pipeline Transportation

  1. Because underground pipes cannot be engaged in any accidents, pipelines have proven to be the safest method of moving liquids.
  2. Costs are dramatically decreased because there is no need for a return trip. Consider the costs associated with fuel, vehicle maintenance, drives, conductors, etc.
  3. Pipeline transit is never impacted by the weather, unlike land, water, and air transportation.
  4. The fastest and safest method of moving liquids is via pipeline.
  5. Because fewer tankers and lorries are needed for transportation, there is less traffic congestion on the roads.


Disadvantages Of Pipeline Transportation

  1. The pipeline’s construction and installation are quite expensive.
  2. Pipelines are easily damaged, and the cost of building new infrastructure and making repairs is typically very high.
  3. When there is damage to the pipeline, there is a loss of liquid (oil spillage), which results in financial loss.
  4. When there is an oil spill, nearby residents are frequently enticed to retrieve the liquid, notably oil and gas. And this could lead to a fire outbreak that destroys homes and lives.
  5. An oil spill may cause water and land pollution.